The Question of the Goodness of God
and the Christian Response: The Trinity

Public Survey/Display

What Can We Do About Evil? (and instructions and theology of evil)

What Story Do You Live In? (and associated message)

How Much of an Atheist Are You? (and instructions)

Find Your Heart's Desire? (and instructions and theology of desire)

Whose Justice? (instructions and talk on Christian Restorative Justice)


Fun Explorations of Theology

C.S. Lewis' Theology of Atonement

The Theology of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings part 1 and part 2 and part 3 and part 4 and a fun site

The Theology of J.R.R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (short version)

The Theology of J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter

* Ryan Reeves, The Silmarillion Part 1 (GCTS video, Sep 14, 2014)

* Ryan Reeves, The Silmarillion Part 2 (GCTS video, Sep 17, 2014)

* Ryan Reeves, Themes in Lord of the Rings Part 1 (GCTS video, Oct 5, 2014)

* Ryan Reeves, Themes in Lord of the Rings Part 2 (GCTS video, Oct 13, 2014)

* Ryan Reeves, The Hobbit (GCTS video, Oct 24, 2014)

* Ryan Reeves, Lewis and Tolkien (GCTS videos) - 20 videos!


The Trinity and Human Origins in Creation

An Introduction to the Trinity vs. the Singularity:  Models of God and Why they Matter

The Trinity: Can Other Gods Be Personally Known?

The Creation Account in Genesis and Tolkien's Silmarillion

Human Dignity: Does Every Individual Matter?

Why Human Free Will is Essential to Being in the Image of the Triune God

How Our Choices Shape Our Desires:  Humanity Experiencing the Triune God

The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil:  What Was It, Really?  Was Evil Necessary?

Helpful books and articles

* David Bentley Hart, Nihilism and Freedom  (lecture) Hart gives a historical overview of how Christian views of "God's sovereignty" and "human freedom" changed over time

* John Polkinghorne interview (note 8:57min mark about quantum mechanics, determinacy, human free will, and openness)

* C.S. Lewis, Perelandra

* Colin Gunton, The Doctrine of Creation (pdf book, 1997)

* Colin Gunton, The Triune Creator: A Historical and Systematic Study (pdf book, 1998)

* Andy Crouch, Are We Created? (video)

* Alexis Torrance, The Concept of the Person in Orthodoxy (Pravoslavie, Mar 14, 2013)

* Matthew A. Moser, On the Challenges of Dante #1: Taking Goodness Seriously (blog, Feb 2014)

* N.T. Wright, The Song of Worship (youtube video, Mar 17, 2014)

* Greg Boyd, Process Theology and Open Theism: What's the Difference? (Mar 24, 2014)

* Ryan Reeves, The Silmarillion (youtube video lecture, Sep 14, 2014)

* Father Aidan Kimel, Christos Yannaras: The Fall of Humanity into the Desperate Passion for Survival (Eclectic Orthodoxy blog, Jan 11, 2015)

* Thomas Belt, At Liberty to Become Free (Eclectic Orthodoxy blog, Aug 21, 2015)

* Thomas Jay Oord, The Uncontrolling Love of God: An Open and Relational Account of Providence (Amazon book, Dec 6, 2015)

* Thomas Jay Oord, How is Divine Providence Possible, if the Future is Unknown to God? (youtube video, Dec 10, 2015)

* Ronald Osborn, The Scandalous Origins of Human Rights (Veritas Forum, Jan 15, 2016)

* Tom Belt, God Wills Our Improvisation (An Open Orthodoxy blog, Apr 6, 2016)

* Frank Wilczek, Why Is the World So Beautiful? (On Being, Apr 28, 2016)

* John Milbank, The Analogy of Being (University of Nottingham, Jun 16, 2016)

* Christopher Fisher, God is Not All-Powerful, and the Bible Tells Us So (Uncontrolling Love, Aug 25, 2016)

* Bobby Grow, The Covenant of Works, the Covenant of Grace: What Are They? The Evangelical Calvinists Respond (Evangelical Calvinist, Sep 19, 2016)


The Trinity and Human Free Will in the First Testament

God, Omnipotence, and Evil: God in Genesis

Jesus in Genesis?

The Trinity: Can Other Gods Be Personally Known?

Spoken Word: How Can We Trust This God?

Suffering and the Sovereignty of God's Word

Exodus: Who Hardened Pharaoh's Heart?

The Sacrificial System and Atonement in the Pentateuch

Is God a Misogynist?  Women in the Pentateuch (ppt part 1 and part 2)

The Troubling Acts of God:  Noah's Flood, Sodom and Gomorrah, the Egyptian Firstborn, and the Canaanites

The Troubling Acts of God:  The Destruction of the Canaanites (ppt part 1 and part 2)

The Troubling Acts of God:  Did God or Satan Make David Sin? (2 Samuel 24 and 1 Chronicles 21)

Why Did God Choose a "Chosen People"?  Why Not Just Skip Right to Jesus? (one document)

* Reason #1: To Be a Microcosm of All Humanity, Not a Race or Ethnicity

* Reason #2: To Live by God's Word and Hope for a Happy Ending

* Reason #3: To Diagnose the Evil Internal to Human Nature

* Reason #4: To Suffer on Behalf of the World

* Reason #5: To Document the Diagnosis

* Reason #6: To Anticipate God's Dwelling Within People

* Reason #7: To Oppose Pagan Temple Systems and Glimpse the Trinity

* Reason #8: To Anticipate the Messiah and His Mission

For more information, please see:

* The Question of Evil and the Christian Response: Jesus' New Humanity

* The Question of Suffering and the Christian Response: The Divine-Human Partnership

Helpful books and articles

* Paul Copan, Is God a Moral Monster: Making Sense of the Old Testament God

* David T. Lamb, God Behaving Badly: Is the God of the Old Testament Angry, Sexist, and Racist? 

* Elenore Stump, God-Sanctioned Violence (video, Jul 6, 2010)

* Brian Zahnd, John Piper and Allah Akbar (blog post Aug 12, 2013)

* Peter Enns, John Piper on "Why It's Right for God to Slaughter Women and Children Anytime He Pleases" and Why I Have Some Major Problems With That (Patheos, Jul 17, 2012)

* Peter Enns, Has John Piper Changed his Mind about “It’s Right for God to Slaughter Women and Children Anytime He Pleases”? (I’m just asking because the page is missing) (Patheos, Oct 11, 2012)

* David Bentley Hart Nihilism and Freedom (lecture)

* Tullian Tchividjian, Relationship Between Law and Gospel (blog post Jan 13, 2014)

* Greg Boyd, 5 Ways the Bible Supports Open Theism (ReKnew blog, Oct 28, 2015)


The Trinity and Human Free Will in the New Testament

The Trinity: Can Other Gods Be Personally Known?

Big Questions About God: Contrasting Early and High Federal Calvinist Theologies

The Atonement:  What Does Jesus' Death Mean About God's Character?

The Resurrection of Jesus:  Its Historicity and Meaning

Evil and the Christian God

Evil and the Christian God and Theology of Atonement

Images of God in a Broken World 

Does Prayer Change God?

Does God Have Emotions?

The Son Reveals and Hides the Father?:  An Analysis of Matthew 11:25 - 30

Many Called, Few Chosen?  An Analysis of Matthew 22:1 - 14

Christ's Proclamation to the Dead:  An Analysis of 1 Peter 3:19 and its Significance

Romans 9 - 11: Predestination and Free Will, Hardening of Hearts, Outreach to the Jewish Community

Paul's Definition of Predestination:  An Analysis of Romans 9 - 11

Predestination and Free Will:  Five Protestant Views

Free Will in the Early Church Fathers

John Calvin: Quotes on Universal Atonement

The Council of Nicaea, the Origin of "the Trinity," and the Limitations of Human Language on the linguistic, theological dimension

The Council of Nicaea, the Origin of "the Trinity," and the Role of Political Power on the political history

For more information, please see:

* The Question of Evil and the Christian Response: Jesus' New Humanity

* The Question of Suffering and the Christian Response: The Divine-Human Partnership

* The Atonement: The Meaning of Jesus' Death

* The Resurrection: Its History and Meaning

Helpful books and articles

* Francis Thompson (1859 - 1907), The Hound of Heaven a magnificent poem about God pursuing us

* C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity 

* Zach Weiner, William Paley proves that there's a God, and that he's a d*ck (Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal)

* Scot McKnight, Who are the Neo-Reformed? (BeliefNet blog, Feb 2009)

* Matt Bradshaw, Christopher G. Ellison, and Jack P. Marcum, Attachment to God, Images of God, and Psychological Distress in a Nationwide Sample of Presbyterians (International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 2010)

* Perry C. Robinson, The Love and Hate of God (Energetic Procession blog, Jul 8, 2012)

* Brian Zahnd, John Piper and Allah Akbar (blog post Aug 12, 2013)

* John Piper, How Does it Glorify God to Predestine People to Hell? (Desiring God youtube video, Oct 21, 2013)

* David Bentley Hart lecture on Nihilism and Freedom 

* Viralnova Entertainment, Ricardo Bofill's Renovation of an Old, Shut-Down Cement Factory (Viralnova, Dec 18, 2013) - a parable

* Robin Phillips, Why I Stopped Being a Calvinist (Part 1): Calvinism Presents a Dehistoricized Bible (Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy weblog, Jan 9, 2014)

* Robin Phillips, Why I Stopped Being a Calvinist (Part 2): Calvinism Destroys God's Justice (Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy weblog, Jan 10, 2014)

* Robin Phillips, Why I Stopped Being a Calvinist (Part 3): Calvinism Dislocates God from Our Experience of Him (Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy weblog, Jan 21, 2014)

* Robin Phillips, Why I Stopped Being a Calvinist (Part 4): The Heresy of Monergism (Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy weblog, Jan 22, 2014)

* Robin Phillips, Why I Stopped Being a Calvinist (Part 5): A Deformed Christology (Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy weblog, Jan 23, 2014)

* Austin Fischer, Young, Restless, and No Longer Reformed: Black Holes, Love, and a Journey In and Out of Calvinism (2014) and T.C. Moore's review

* Roger Olson, Why (High) Calvinism is Impossible (Patheos blog, Mar 16, 2014)

* N.T. Wright, Israel in Pauline Theology (video, Mar 20, 2014)

* T.C. Moore, Muslim Open Theists, Politics, T.F. Torrance, and Why the God-Man Matters (blog, Mar 23, 2014)

* C.S. Lewis Doodle, Watch Hand-Drawn Animations of 7 Stories and Essays by Lewis (Open Culture, Apr 30, 2014)

* Zondervan, Old Debate, New Day: Calvinism - Proposition 1 (youtube video, Aug 28, 2014)

* Ben Witherington, Does Romans 9 - 11 Teach Calvinist Predestination? (Ministry Matters video, Sep 2014)

* Reknew, On the Calvinism Debate in Chicago Last Week (Reknew, Sep 1, 2014) and T.C. Moore's blog on it (blog, Sep 1, 2014)

* Tony Jones, With Mark Driscoll Gone, We’ve Only Got John Piper To Show Us the Insanity of Hypercalvinism (Patheos, Nov 6, 2014)

* Richard Beck, When God Became the Devil (Experimental Theology blog, Nov 20, 2014), see also the comments

* N.T. Wright, On Predestination (youtube video, Dec 25, 2014)

* George Hunsinger, What Christ Did Was Effective for All (Grace Communion International video)

* Cherith Fee Nordling, What Jesus' Humanity Means for Us (Grace Communion International video)

* Mike Feazell, Predestination: Does God Choose Your Fate, or Does He Let You Choose It? (Grace Communion International website)

* N.T. Wright, On the Importance of Trinitarian Faith (Fuller Seminary video, Nov 8, 2014)

* Greg Boyd, Does the Doctrine of the Trinity Matter? (ReKnew blog, May 11, 2015)

* Mikayla Bean, Anne Graham Lotz Says Terrorist Attacks Are Just God's Way Of Demonstrating His Love (RightWing Watch, Jun 15, 2015)

* Ameena Schilling, Starving Dog Found Collapsed On Street Is Completely Transformed By Kindness (The Dodo, Sep 25, 2015) a parable

* Greg Boyd, The Starting Point for Knowing God (ReKnew blog, Oct 5, 2015)

* Zach Hoag, Goldilocks Theology and God's Power - Thomas Oord (Zach J. Hoag, Nov 12, 2015)

* David Bentley Hart, Interview - Crackers and Juice Podcast (ObjectiveBob, Feb 27, 2017) 50 min mark on Calvin; 55:30 min mark on Barth


The Trinity and Human Destiny

Heaven as Sharing in the Triune Life

Hell as the Love of God (and ppt) (short ppt)

Hell as Fire and Darkness: Remembrance of Sinai as Covenant Rejection in Matthew's Gospel

C.S. Lewis' Theology of Atonement

The Theology of Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings part 1 and part 2 and part 3

The Theology of J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter part 1 and part 2

Timothy Keller on Hell: A Response to Keller's The Reason for God

Helpful books and articles

* C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity (1944)

* C.S. Lewis, The Great Divorce (1945) and discussion guide written by the C.S. Lewis Foundation

* J.R.R. Tolkien's Eucatastrophe (website)

* Vatican, He Descended Into Hell (Vatican website)

* Father Aidan Kimel, Readings in Universalism (Eclectic Orthodoxy blog)

* John Sachs, S.J., Apocatastasis in Patristic Theology (Theological Studies, 1993)

* Kallistos Ware, Dare We Hope for Everyone To Be Saved? (Scribd paper, 1998)

* Michael Morrison, The Apostles' Creed: He Descended to the Dead (Grace Communion International, 1999)

* Avery Cardinal Dulles, The Population of Hell (First Things, May 2003)

* Nick Pisa, Pope Ends State of Limbo After 800 Years (Telegraph, Apr 23, 2007)

* Stephen Colbert, Interview with Dr. Philip Zimbardo (The Colbert Report, Feb 11, 2008) about the devil and hell

* Our God is a Consuming Fire (God's Character, Jun 10, 2008) helpful list of Scriptures regarding God as fire, with comments; see also L. Ray Smith, Lake of Fire, a criticism of KJV

* Universalism in the Orthodox Church? (blog, May 7, 2012)

* Perry C. Robinson, Maximus the Confessor and the Condemnation of John Italus (Energetic Procession blog, Jan 30, 2013) about why universalism is false

* Perry C. Robinson, Irenaeus and the Condemnation of John Italus (Energetic Procession blog, Mar 16, 2013) about why universalism is false

* John Shore, Atheist and Christian Argue About Hell (in a Starbucks); Atheist Win (Patheos blog, Dec 6, 2013)

* Downside Up, The Flaming Toilet of Death (Downside Up, Jul 30, 2013)

* N.T. Wright, Hell and Purgatory (youtube video, Jun 27, 2014)

* Kathryn Gin Lum, Damnation, American Style: How American Preachers Reinvented Hell (Salon, Sep 6, 2014)

* N.T. Wright, On Hell and Rob Bell (youtube video, Sep 16, 2014)

* Roger E. Olson, Universalism is in the Air (Much Discussed) Among Even Evangelicals: What About It? (Patheos blog, Jan 14, 2015)

* Stephen Nemes, Ilaria Ramelli, The Christian Doctrine of Apokatastasis: A Critical Assessment from the New Testament to Eriugena (Journal of Analytic Theology, May 2015)

* Father John Whiteford, The Strange Theology of David Bentley Hart (blog, May 14, 2015)

* Stephen Freeman, Is Hell Real? (Ancient Faith blog, May 25, 2015)

* Wikipedia, Mithridates IV of Pontus (Wikipedia article), an illustration; he developed a resistance to poison, and was then unable to commit suicide by poisoning when he was captured



Early Church (Patristic, Nicene, Chalcedonian)

Penal Substitution and Ontological Substitution: A Historical Comparison: my analysis of patristic theologians

* Encyclopedia Britannica, Patristic Literature (website)

* New Advent Catholic website on the Church Fathers (website)

* Eighth Day Institute, The Patristic Word (Eighth Day Institute website)

* Ancient Christian Studies (website)

* Early Christian Writings (website) though I would argue for earlier dates for the New Testament documents

* Anthony Zimmerman, Irenaeus, Evolution, and the Sin in Eden (Lifeissues)

* Robert Arakaki, Excerpts from Irenaeus of Lyons (Ancient Faith blog, Sep 8, 2012)

* Kevin Brown, Three Theologians on Theodicy: Irenaeus, Augustine, and Jurgen Moltmann (Diglotting blog, Mar 26, 2013) a helpful start

* Athanasius, On the Incarnation note especially chapters 1 - 5 on God's response to human sin

* Khaled Anatalios, Athanasius: The Coherence of His Thought (pdf book, Nov 23, 2004)

* Arie Amaya-Akkermans, On Faith: The Theological Reasoning of St. Athanasius (Academia paper)

* Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith (Amazon book, Nov 6, 2000)

* John Behr, The Nicene Faith (Amazon book, Jun 30, 2004)

* Khaled Anatalios, Retrieving Nicaea (Amazon book, Oct 1, 2011)

* Donald Fairbairn, Life in the Trinity (Amazon book, Oct 28, 2009)

* James Papandrea, Reading the Early Church Fathers: From the Didache to Nicea (Amazon book, Jan 2012) an Eastern Orthodox perspective

* Ernest J. McClear, S.J., The Fall of Man and Original Sin in the Theology of Gregory of Nyssa (pdf)

* Basil of Caesarea, On the Human Condition (Amazon book)

* John Cassian, Conference 13 (pdf)

* Perry Robinson, St. John Cassian: On Grace and Free Will: a diablog (Energetic Procession blog) with John Hendryx, the founder of; a great demonstration of the Eastern Orthodox critique of Augustine's double predestination

* Owen Chadwick, John Cassian (Amazon book, Mar 1, 1968)

* Gustav Aulen, Christus Victor:  A Historical Study of the Three Main Types of the Idea of Atonement (Amazon book, 1962)

* Father Aidan Kimel, Recovering the Good News of Predestination (Eclectic Orthodoxy blog, Nov 12, 2014) contrasts Augustine and Maximus Confessor on John 6:39

* David Bentley Hart, Traditio Deformis (First Things, May 2015) and Augnet, Augustine's Greek Language (Augnet) about Augustine's mistranslation of Romans 5:12

* Theologians, Inc., Pelikan on Maximus and Augustine (Theologians, Inc. blog, Nov 23, 2013)

* Perry C. Robinson, No "Gospel" for Augustine (Energetic Procession, Apr 9, 2009) about Augustine not upholding sola fide

* Wikipedia, Vincent of Lerins (wikipedia) and John Cassian (wikipedia) who both cautioned Augustine about his theology

* Maarten Wisse, Trinitarian Theology Beyond Participation: Augustine's De Trinitate and Contemporary Theology (Amazon book, May 23, 2013)

* Frank Viola, The Shocking Beliefs of Augustine (Patheos blog, Jun 30, 2015)

* Seraphim Rose, The Place of Blessed Augustine in the Orthodox Church (Amazon book, 2007) an excellent, sympathetic but fair treatment of Augustine and his teaching on bifurcated grace, double predestination, and lack of human free will; as well as efforts by John Cassian and Vincent of Lerins to correct him

* Matthew W. Bates, The Birth of the Trinity: Jesus, God, and Spirit in New Testament and Early Christian Interpretations of the Old Testament (Academia paper, 2015) outstanding explanation of prosopological exegesis

* Joseph Farrell, Free Choice in Maximus the Confessor (Scribd book, 1989)

* Jonathan Kleis, The Fathers, the Reformed, and the Orthodox Say ‘No’ to Eternal Trinitarian Subordination (Reformissio, Jul 10, 2016) T.F. Torrance's account of Athanasius' influence on the Council of Constantinople

* Jonathan Kleis, Athanasius on Election in Christ (Reformissio, Aug 8, 2016)

* John Panteleimon Monoussakis, St. Augustine and St. Maximus the Confessor between the Beginning and the End (, Aug 31, 2016)

* Robert Fortuin, Analogous Predication in Gregory of Nyssa’s Contra Eunomium (Eclectic Orthodoxy, Oct 4, 2016) creation is good because there is an analogy of being to a good God


Early Church Fathers Who Were Universalists:  Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, Isaac the Syrian, Maximus the Confessor(?)

* Andreas Andreopolous, Eschatology and Final Restoration (Apocatastasis) in Origen, Gregory of Nyssa, and Maximus the Confessor (Scribd, Spr 2004)

* Bryce Rich, Apokatastasis in the Thought of Origen and Gregory of Nyssa (, Dec 12, 2007)

* Father Aidan Kimel, St. Isaac the Syrian: The Triumph of the Kingdom Over Gehenna (Eclectic Orthodoxy blog, Mar 21, 2013)

* Tom Belt, St. Maximus the Confessor, Hell, and the Final Consummation (Eclectic Orthodoxy blog, Feb 16, 2016)


Eastern Orthodox

* Orthodox Christian Network, The Children's Word (website)

* Perry C. Robinson, Energetic Procession (blog)

* Perry C. Robinson, Readings from Church History (Energetic Procession blog) 

* Mode of Life (blog) from Sydney Australia 

* Orthodox Christianity (blog) 

* This is Life! Revolutions Around the Cruciform Axis (blog) 

* Preachers' Institute (website): Eastern Orthodox Homiletics Resource

* Ancient Faith (website)

* Orthodox Witness (website)

* Fyodor Dostoyevsky, The Brothers Karamazov (Amazon book, 1880)

* Vladimir Lossky, Orthodox Faith: An Introduction (Amazon book, 2001)

* David Bentley Hart, The Beauty of the Infinite (Amazon book, 2004)

* David Bentley Hart, The Doors of the Sea: Where Was God in the Tsunami?  (Amazon book, 2011) a short book on how a Trinitarian view of God influences how we think about suffering and evil.  Includes a critique of the Calvinist tendency towards God's omnicausality.  Lays out the categories in very clear terms, but with less analysis.

* David Bentley Hart lecture on Nihilism and Freedom  An historical overview of how Christian views of "God's sovereignty" changed over time.  Initially, Christians understood that God does not and cannot do anything contrary to His own goodness and love, which is implied by the nature of God being Triune (loving in Himself even before He created anything else).  That is, 'freedom' meant being able to make decisions according to one's nature. Thus, God was completely ‘free’ because He is completely loving and good. The idea that ‘freedom’ means the ability to choose both good and evil indiscriminately was simply not how the discussion was framed.  However, what we now mean by ‘freedom’ tends to mean one’s will, irrespective of any discussion about one’s nature.  Some Christians ('voluntarists') then defined God, by virtue of the fact that He is the most powerful being of all, as a God who causes human evil and unbelief, thus making God at least partly evil, and arbitrary.  There was a corresponding effect on views of human freedom: human freedom was defined without first considering humanity's nature as bearing a relational ontology as God's image-bearers, resulting in the view that one cannot stop another person from committing suicide because it is, after all, their own choice.  Prof. Hart is an Eastern Orthodox theologian, philosopher, writer, and cultural commentator.

* David Bentley Hart, articles  A blog dedicated to the promoting the theological thought of David B. Hart, an Eastern Orthodox theologian.

* James Payton, Light from the Christian East (Amazon book, 2007) written from a Protestant evangelical point of view appreciating Eastern Orthodoxy

* Kallistos Ware, Personal Experience of the Holy Spirit According to the Greek Fathers (Silouan Thompson blog, Aug 5, 2008)

* Fr. Anthony Hughes, Ancestral Sin vs. Original Sin (Preachers Institute, Apr 27, 2010)

* Perry C. Robinson, The Heresy of Calvinism (Energetic Procession blog, Jul 10, 2010)

* Father George Dragas, On the Incarnation (videos, 2010); Dragas is a scholar of Athanasius and the Alexandrian theologians

* Robert Arakaki, Ligonier Ministries on Eastern Orthodoxy (Ancient Faith blog, May 4, 2011) a response to Reformed observations and critiques

* Perry C. Robinson, Am I a Pelagian, a Recovering Calvinist, or Just Too Much Into Origen? (Energetic Procession blog, Aug 15, 2011)

* Kevin Allen, Will We Be Ready for the Coming Evangelical Collapse? (Ancient Faith blog, May 2012)

* Robert Arakaki, Plucking the TULIP (1) - An Eastern Orthodox Critique of the Reformed Doctrine of Predestination (Ancient Faith blog, Aug 12, 2012) overview of TULIP

* Robert Arakaki, Plucking the TULIP (2) - An Eastern Orthodox Critique of the Reformed Doctrine of Predestination (Ancient Faith blog, Sep 16, 2012) Augustine's monergism vs. synergism

* Robert Arakaki, Plucking the TULIP (3) - An Eastern Orthodox Critique of the Reformed Doctrine of Predestination (Ancient Faith blog, Sep 16, 2012) two approaches to the Trinity

* Robert Arakaki, Plucking the TULIP (4) - An Eastern Orthodox Critique of the Reformed Doctrine of Predestination (Ancient Faith blog, Sep 22, 2012) monergism and human free will

* Alexis Torrance, The Concept of the Person in Orthodoxy (Pravoslavie, Mar 14, 2013)

* Andrew Louth, The Dumb Ox and the Orthodox: A Review of Orthodox Readings of Aquinas (First Things, May 2013)

* Nathaniel McCallum, Original Sin and Orthodoxy: Reflections on Carthage (Ancient Faith blog, Aug 22, 2013) intriguingly credits transmission of "original guilt" not to Augustine's translation of Romans 5:12 but to his view that there was a gap between genesis (conception) and kinesis (motion); although see Francis Schüssler Fiorenza, John P. Galvin, Systematic Theology: Roman Catholic Perspectives, Volume 2 (Google book) which argues that some facets of Roman Catholic theology (like this point) have been in a state of flux; and see also Michael Pomazansky, Orthodox Dogmatic Theology (website, Feb 1, 2009), who also faults Augustine on Romans; but see Nathaniel McCallum, Inherited Guilt in Saints Augustine and Cyril (Academia, 2016) re-engagement of the issue

* Father James Bernstein, Heaven and Hell: The Divine Fire of God's Love (Mode of Life blog, Oct 11, 2013)

* Perry C. Robinson, Three Objections to Dyothelitism (Energetic Procession blog, Nov 14, 2013)

* Robert Arakaki, The Great Apostasy: John Calvin and the Fall of the Church (Orthodoxy and Heterodoxy, Feb 10, 2014) quotations from Calvin about the early church

* John Zizioulas, The Ontology of Love (video, Eclectic Orthodoxy blog, Jan 10, 2015)

* Father Aidan Kimel, Christos Yannaras: The God of Orthodoxy Meets the Deity of the West (Eclectic Orthodoxy blog, Jan 15, 2015)

* John Panteleimon Manoussakis, For the Unity of All: Contributions to the Theological Dialogue between East and West (Amazon book, Feb 5, 2015) comparing Augustine and Maximus on the human person, God's grace, and free will

* Kevin Allen, Unique Characteristics of Eastern Orthodox Spirituality (Conciliar Post, Apr 16, 2015)

* Father John Whiteford, The Strange Theology of David Bentley Hart (blog, May 14, 2015) a conservative Eastern Orthodox criticism of Hart

* Aidan Kimel, The Ecumenical Stain of Original Sin (Eclectic Orthodoxy, Sep 3, 2015)

* Aidan Kimel, Why Denial of Divine Simplicity Implies Atheism (Eclectic Orthodoxy, May 10, 2016)

* Christiaan Kappes, The Essence/Energies Distinction and the Myth of Byzantine Illogic (Eclectic Orthodoxy, Jun 27, 2016)

* Aidan Kimel, Hell as Universal Purgatory (Eclectic Orthodoxy, Sep 28, 2016)


Roman Catholic

* Karl Rahner, The Trinity (Amazon book, 1967, 1997)

* Thomas G. Weinandy, In the Likeness of Sinful Flesh (1993; pdf book online)

* John Sachs, S.J., Apocatastasis in Patristic Theology (Theological Studies, 1993)

* Michael J. Himes, Doing the Truth in Love: Conversations About God, Relationships, and Service (Amazon book, 1995)

* Paul Molnar, Keeping Christ at the Center (You're Included video)

* Paul Molnar, Divine Freedom and the Doctrine of the Immanent Trinity (Amazon book, Nov 2005)

* Nicole Streit, Karl Rahner on Grace and Salvation (paper, Mar 28, 2007)

* Paul Molnar, Thomas F. Torrance (pdf book, 2009)

* John W. Williams, Karl Rahner on the Death of Christ (Evangelical Theological Society paper)

* Joseph Bolin, Augustine and Ratzinger on Faith and Salvation (Paths of Love blog, Nov 2010) shows Ratzinger correcting Augustine on Jesus' descent to the dead, and infant baptism, moving back to the Cappadocian and Eastern Orthodox position

* Yves Congar, Augustine, the Trinity, and the Filioque (excerpt from Congar's book) shows Congar correcting Augustine on the Trinity and the Holy Spirit; much like Colin Gunton's critique

* Paul Molnar, Faith, Freedom and the Spirit: The Economic Trinity in Barth, Torrance, and Contemporary Theology (Amazon book, Feb 2015)

* Will Duquette, Today's Aquinas: Why a Trinity? Why Not a Quaternity? (Cry Woof blog, Nov 23, 2015)

* Christopher D. Jackson, Catholics Are Adopting a Lutheran Perspective on Martin Luther. They Shouldn't (First Things, Jul 22, 2016)


Protestant Evangelical

* Grace Communion International, The Nicene Creed's Incarnational Trinitarian Roots (The Surprising God blog)

* Evangelical Calvinism, a blog by Bobby Grow

* Christ and University, a blog

* The Divine Conspiracy, a resource website

* Trinity and Humanity, a blog

* Trinity in You, a resource website

* Perichoresis, a website, and Dr. Baxter Kruger's personal blog

* Kerry's Loft, a blog including a list of theologians who are Incarnational and Trinitarian

* You're Included Website  Sermons, interviews, lectures exploring the practical implications of Christ-centered, Trinitarian theology

* The Surprising God, a resource blog of GCI exploring Incarnational, Trinitarian theology

* Trinity Study Center Website  Gary and Catherine Deddo's resources, includes bible studies and papers

* T.F. Torrance Website  T.F. Torrance Theological Society resources

* Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics (Amazon book, 1932 - 1967)

* C.S. Lewis, Mere Christianity  (pdf book, 1944) a masterpiece; see especially the section called "What Christians Believe" on the Trinity

* Karl Barth, The Humanity of God (Amazon book, 1960)

* T.F. Torrance, The Grammar and Ground of Theology (audio, 1981) lectures given at Fuller Seminary, excellent resource on the interaction between scientific and theological pursuits

* Philip Hughes, The True Image: Christ as the Origin and Destiny of Man (Amazon book, Feb 1989)

* Thomas Oden, The Living God - Systematic Theology Part 1 (Amazon book, Aug 1992)

* Thomas Oden, The Word of Life - Systematic Theology Part 2 (Amazon book, Sep 1992)

* Colin Gunton, The One, the Three, and the Many (book, Aug 1993)

* James B. Torrance, Worship, Community, and the Triune God of Grace (Amazon book, Aug 1997) excellent reflection on making worship more Christ-centered and Trinitarian 

* Colin Gunton, The Doctrine of Creation (pdf book, 1997)

* Colin Gunton, The Triune Creator: A Historical and Systematic Study (pdf book, 1998)

* Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God (Amazon book, Dec 2001)

* Colin Gunton, The Promise of Trinitarian Theology (book, Dec 2003) contains a lively critique of Augustine's theology of the Trinity

* Colin Gunton, The Actuality of Atonement (Amazon book, Dec 2003)

* Stanley Grenz, Rediscovering the Triune God (Amazon book, Apr 2004)

* Philip Dixon, Nice and Hot Disputes: The Doctrine of the Trinity in the Seventeenth Century (Google book, Feb 9, 2006)

* Thomas Oden, Life in the Spirit - Systematic Theology Part 3 (Amazon book, Apr 2006)

* Kim Fabricius, Ten Propositions About Karl Barth (Faith and Theology blog, Nov 10, 2006)

* Donald Bloesch, Jesus Christ (Amazon book, Jan 2006)

* Donald Bloesch, The Last Things (Amazon book, Jan 2006)

* William Paul Young, The Shack (Amazon book, Jul 2007) parable about a man who loses his daughter in a rape-murder, and wrestles with God about it - reveals good insights about the Trinity and the character of God.  Roger Olson, Finding God in "The Shack" is also helpful as a theological reflection on the book.  My response to Mark Driscoll's youtube criticism of the book is here

* S.J. Han, An Investigation into Calvin's Use of Augustine (Chongshin Theological Seminary, Acta Theologica Supplementum 10, 2008)

* Ted Johnston, Final Judgment in Light of Inclusion (Surprising God blog, May 21, 2008)

* Thomas F. Torrance, Incarnation (Amazon book, Oct 2008)

* Thomas F. Torrance, Atonement (Amazon book, Nov 2009)

* Zach Weiner, God is like a table held on three legs (Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal): a punchy cartoon take on the logical problem of God being equally omnipotent, omniscient, and omnibenevolent - an impossibility anyway

* Suzanne McDonald, Re-Imaging Election: Divine Election as Representing God to Others & Others to God (Amazon book, 2010)

* Jeff McSwain, Movements of Grace: The Dynamic Christo-Realism of Barth, Bonhoeffer, and the Torrances (Amazon book, Sep 15, 2010)

* J.R. Woodward, A Missional View of the Doctrine of Election (blog, Jun 23, 2011)

* Christopher A. Hall, Back to the Fathers (Christianity Today, Oct 21, 2011) about Tom Oden's move from the theological left to the church fathers

* Dan Chapa, Middle Knowledge in Scripture (Traditional Baptist Chronicles blog, Dec 15, 2011)

* John Milbank, The Eastward Movement of Western Theology (youtube video, Apr 9, 2012)

* Myk Habets, Bobby Grow, Evangelical Calvinism: Essays Resourcing the Continuing Reformation of the Church (Amazon book, Jun 2012)

* Brian Orr, The Influence of Augustinian Theology in the Reformation (Academia, Oct 2012)

* Tom Belt, Tying the Trinity Knot (An Open Orthodoxy blog, Nov 7, 2013)

* Touchstone Magazine, C.S. Lewis Commemorative (Oct 2013)

* T.F. Torrance Theological Society, Participatio Journal (2014)

* Zack Hunt, An Open Letter to John Calvin (Zack Hunt blog, May 13, 2014)

* Kenneth Oakes, On Being Modern, a Methodist, and the Analogy of Being (Syndicate, Dec 17, 2014) exploration and critique of Barth's denial of analogia entis

* Rick Lawrence, William Paul Young and the Goodness of God (Group Magazine, Dec 19, 2014)

* Roger Olson, C.S. Lewis Said It: God's "Goodness" Cannot Be Wholly Other (Patheos, Mar 24, 2015)

* Frank Viola, The Shocking Beliefs of Jonathan Edwards (Patheos blog, Nov 24, 2014)

* Darren Summer, Revelation and History: Cornelius Van Til’s Critique of Karl Barth (Out of Bounds blog, Jan 25, 2015) argues Van Til misunderstood Barth

* Wesley Hill, The Creator God of the New Testament: Classical Theism and the Canon (First Things, Feb 13, 2015) on theology as an integrative task, not merely an exegetical one

* Ben Myers, Early Trinitarian Theology (lecture, Apr 10, 2015)

* George Hunsinger, Barth Wars: A Review of Reading Barth with Charity (First Things, Apr 2015)

* Alister McGrath, C.S. Lewis' Discovery of the Christian Faith: Issues and Debates (yourlisten audio)

* Alister McGrath, Reason, Imagination, and Faith: Lewis’s Critique of Rationalism (yourlisten audio)

* Alister McGrath, Myth and Demythologization: Lewis on Theology and Narratives (yourlisten audio)

* Alister McGrath, Seeing Reality: Lewis on the Use of Visual Metaphors in Theology (yourlisten audio)

* Alister McGrath, Morality and Desire: Lewis’s Reframing of Theistic Arguments (yourlisten audio)

* Alister McGrath, Theology, Narrative, and Narnia: Aslan as a Christ-Figure (yourlisten audio)

* Frank Viola, The Shocking Beliefs of John Calvin (Patheos blog, Apr 8, 2015)

* Bradley Jersak, A More Christ-Like God, a More Beautiful Gospel (Amazon book, Apr 21, 2015)

* Bobby Grow, Death Bathed in the Fiery Love of God (Evangelical Calvinist blog, Jul 1, 2015)

* Theologians, Inc., Barth, Wright, and Election (Theologians, Inc. blog, Jul 14, 2015)

* Bobby Grow, Some Thoughts on Planned Parenthood (Evangelical Calvinist blog, Jul 14, 2015)

* Bobby Grow, Thomas Torrance and Katherine Sonderegger in Confluence: Evangelizing a Substance Metaphysic in a Doctrine of God (Evangelical Calvinist blog, Jul 15, 2015)

* Bobby Grow, Karl Barth and Thomas Torrance, Against Federal Theology Side by Side (Evangelical Calvinist blog, Aug 28, 2015)

* Liam Goligher, Is it Okay to Teach a Complementarianism Based on Eternal Subordination? (Mortification of Spin, Jun 3, 2016)

* Liam Goligher, Reinventing God (Mortification of Spin, Jun 6, 2016)

* Bill Winn, Against My Beliefs (Trinity Happy Hour, Jun 6, 2016)

* John Milbank, Why Study Augustine of Hippo (University of Nottingham, Jul 14, 2016) explains Augustine's error re: his definition of predestination

* Bobby Grow, Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth on Divine Simplicity and Analogy [of Being] in Comparison (The Evangelical Calvinist, Jul 24, 2016) although I am probably more inclined to disagree

* Greg Boyd, A Brief Theology of the Trinity (ReKnew, Aug 2016)

* Jonathan Sheehan, Teaching Calvin in California (NY Times, Sep 12, 2016) about double predestination and the practical results in lived experience

* Jeremy Jernigan, Does God Exist Outside of Time? (ReKnew, Sep 2016)

* Bobby Grow, What Is Dialectical Theology in Evangelical Calvinism and Why Is It Important? (Evangelical Calvinist, Sep 23, 2016) is a very helpful description, although I prefer the linear model of Eastern Orthodoxy; see Perry Robinson, St. John Cassian: On Grace and Free Will: a diablog (Energetic Procession blog) with John Hendryx, the founder of; a great demonstration of the Eastern Orthodox critique of Augustine's double predestination, and placement of human free will as a gift and expression of God's love for us

* Bobby Grow, The Covenant of Works in Reformed Theology and an Alternative Covenantal Frame Provided by Evangelical Calvinism (Evangelical Calvinist, Oct 7, 2016)

* Ted Johnston, What the Hell? (Surprising God blog, Oct 26, 2016)

* Jason G. Duesling, Tom Oden’s (1931-2016) Recovery of Classic Christianity (JDGuesling blog, Dec 9, 2016)

* Bobby Grow, An Evangelical Calvinist Critique of the Theology That Funds 5 Point Calvinism: A Critique of the Westminster Confession of Faith (Evangelical Calvinist, Mar 8, 2017)

* Bobby Grow, Karl Barth's Reformed Doctrine of Theosis in Contradistinction to the Eastern Orthodox (Evangelical Calvinist, Apr 11, 2017)



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